Free site book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. No cover available. Download; Bibrec. DOSTOJEVSKIJ IDIOT PDF - A superb new translation of The Idiot reveals some unexpected facets of Dostoevsky's hero, AS Byatt finds. The The Idiot. DOSTOJEVSKIJ IDIOT AS PDF - Upon Prince Myshkin's return to St. Petersburg from an asylum in Switzerland, he becomes beguiled by the lovely young.
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The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Translated by Eva fepipvawoobig.tk is one of the most influential works by Dostoyevsky. The story revolves around Prince Lev Nikol. The Idiot. One of them was a young fellow of about twenty-seven, not tall, with black curling hair, and small, grey, fiery eyes. His nose was broad and flat, and he. LibriVox recording of The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Part 01 and 02)Read by Martin Geeson The extraordinary child-adult Prince Myshkin.
Inexperienced in the ways of the aristocracy, Myshkin is deeply impressed by the elegance and good humour of the company, unsuspicious of its superficiality. It turns out that one of those present—Ivan Petrovich—is a relative of his beloved benefactor Pavlishchev, and the Prince becomes extraordinarily enthusiastic. But when Ivan Petrovich mentions that Pavlishchev ended by giving up everything and going over to the Roman Church, Myshkin is horrified.
He launches unexpectedly into a tirade against Catholicism, claiming that it preaches the Antichrist and in its quest for political supremacy has given birth to Atheism. Everyone present is shocked and several attempts are made to stop or divert him, but he only becomes more animated. At the height of his fervor he begins waving his arms about and knocks over the priceless Chinese vase, smashing it to pieces. As Myshkin emerges from his profound astonishment, the general horror turns to amusement and concern for his health.
But it is only temporary, and he soon begins another spontaneous discourse, this time on the subject of the aristocracy in Russia, once again becoming oblivious to all attempts to quell his ardour. The speech is only brought to an end by the onset of an epileptic seizure: Aglaya, deeply distressed, catches him in her arms as he falls.
He is taken home, having left a decidedly negative impression on the guests. The next day Ippolit visits the Prince to inform him that he and others such as Lebedyev and Ganya have been intriguing against him, and have been unsettling Aglaya with talk of Nastasya Filippovna.
Ippolit has arranged, at Aglaya's request and with Rogozhin's help, a meeting between the two women. That evening Aglaya, having left her home in secret, calls for the Prince. They proceed in silence to the appointed meeting place, where both Nastasya Filippovna and Rogozhin are already present. It soon becomes apparent that Aglaya has not come there to discuss anything, but to chastise and humiliate Nastasya Filippovna, and a bitter exchange of accusations and insults ensues.
Nastasya Filippovna orders Rogozhin to leave and hysterically demands of Myshkin that he stay with her. Myshkin, once again torn by her suffering, is unable to deny her and reproaches Aglaya for her attack. Aglaya looks at him with pain and hatred, and runs off. He goes after her but Nastasya Filippovna stops him desperately and then faints.
Myshkin stays with her. In accordance with Nastasya Filippovna's wish, she and the Prince become engaged. Public opinion is highly critical of Myshkin's actions toward Aglaya, and the Epanchins break off all relations with him. He tries to explain to Yevgeny Pavlovich that Nastasya Filippovna is a broken soul, that he must stay with her or she will probably die, and that Aglaya will understand if he is only allowed to talk to her.
Yevgeny Pavlovich refuses to facilitate any contact between them and suspects that Myshkin himself is mad. On the day of the wedding, a beautifully attired Nastasya Filippovna is met by Keller and Burdovsky, who are to escort her to the church where Myshkin is waiting.
A large crowd has gathered, among whom is Rogozhin. Seeing him, Nastasya Filippovna rushes to him and tells him hysterically to take her away, which Rogozhin loses no time in doing. The Prince, though shaken, is not particularly surprised at this development.
For the remainder of the day he calmly fulfills his social obligations to guests and members of the public. The following morning he takes the first train to Petersburg and goes to Rogozhin's house, but he is told by servants that there is no one there.
After several hours of fruitless searching, he returns to the hotel he was staying at when he last encountered Rogozhin in Petersburg. Rogozhin appears and asks him to come back to the house.
They enter the house in secret and Rogozhin leads him to the dead body of Nastasya Filippovna: he has stabbed her through the heart. The two men keep vigil over the body, which Rogozhin has laid out in his study. Rogozhin is sentenced to fifteen years hard labor in Siberia.
Myshkin goes mad and, through the efforts of Yevgeny Pavlovich, returns to the sanatorium in Switzerland. The Epanchins go abroad and Aglaya elopes with a wealthy, exiled Polish count who later is discovered to be neither wealthy, nor a count, nor an exile—at least, not a political exile—and who, along with a Catholic priest, has turned her against her family.
Major characters[ edit ] Prince Myshkin , the novel's central character, is a young man who has returned to Russia after a long period abroad where he was receiving treatment for epilepsy.
The lingering effects of the illness, combined with his innocence and lack of social experience, sometimes create the superficial and completely false impression of mental or psychological deficiency. Most of the other characters at one time or another refer to him disparagingly as an 'idiot', but nearly all of them are deeply affected by him.
In truth he is highly intelligent, self-aware, intuitive and empathic. He is someone who has thought deeply about human nature, morality and spirituality, and is capable of expressing those thoughts with great clarity.
Nastasya Filippovna , the main female protagonist, is darkly beautiful, intelligent, fierce and mocking, an intimidating figure to most of the other characters. Of noble birth but orphaned at age 7, she was manipulated into a position of sexual servitude by her guardian, the voluptuary Totsky. Her broken innocence and the social perception of disgrace produce an intensely emotional and destructive personality.
The Prince is deeply moved by her beauty and her suffering, and despite feeling that she is insane, remains devoted to her. She is torn between Myshkin's compassion and Rogozhin's obsession with her.
He instinctively likes and trusts the Prince when they first meet, but later develops a hatred for him out of jealousy. The character represents passionate, instinctive love, as opposed to Myshkin's Christian love based in compassion. She is proud, commanding and impatient, but also full of arch humour, laughter and innocence, and the Prince is particularly drawn to her after the darkness of his time with Nastasya Filippovna and Rogozhin.
Still full of youthful idealism, he craves love and recognition from others, but their indifference and his own morbid self-obsession lead him to increasing extremes of cynicism and defiance. The character is a 'quasi-double' for Myshkin: their circumstances force them to address the same metaphysical questions, but their responses are diametrically opposed. He also tries to compete with Myshkin for Aglaya's affections. A mediocrity who imagines himself original, Ganya represents love from vanity, and is contrasted with Myshkin and Rogozhin.
He uses this to ingratiate himself with superiors, and to pursue various schemes and intrigues. His unpleasant tendencies are offset to some extent by a mischievous sense of humour, a sharp intellect, and occasional bouts of abject self-condemnation and compassion for others. Though child-like in the spontaneity of her emotions, she is strong-willed and imperious, particularly about matters of honour and morality.
Myshkin considers her and Aglaya to be very alike. Prince Shch. His rumoured interest in Aglaya leads Nastasya Filippovna who wants to bring Aglaya and the Prince together to publicly expose some unsavoury aspects of his background. Despite this, he and the Prince become friends and have a mutual respect for each other's intelligence.
He is the former guardian of Nastasya Filippovna. He is a friend of Ippolit's, and also becomes a friend and confidant of the Prince. He begins by aggressively demanding money from the Prince, but later becomes an admirer. He later develops a great admiration for the Prince and seeks to defend him.
Doktorenko — Lebedyev's nephew, a nihilist who, along with Ippolit, leads Burdovsky's attack on the Prince. Themes[ edit ] Atheism and Christianity in Russia[ edit ] A dialogue between the intimately related themes of Atheism and Christian faith meaning, for Dostoevsky, Russian Orthodoxy pervades the entire novel. Dostoevsky's personal image of Christian faith, formed prior to his philosophical engagement with Orthodoxy but never abandoned, was one that emphasized the human need for belief in the immortality of the soul, and identified Christ with ideals of "beauty, truth, brotherhood and Russia".
However, Myshkin's Christianity is not a doctrine or a set of beliefs, it is something that he lives spontaneously in his relations with all others. Whenever he appears "hierarchical barriers between people suddenly become penetrable, an inner contact is formed between them His personality possesses the peculiar capacity to relativize everything that disunifies people and imparts a false seriousness to life.
Holbein's painting held a particular significance for Dostoevsky because he saw in it his own impulse "to confront Christian faith with everything that negated it". I remember someone taking me by the arm, a candle in his hands, and showing me some sort of enormous and repulsive tarantula, assuring me that this was that same dark, blind and all-powerful creature, and laughing at my indignation.
His unexpected tirade at the Epanchins' dinner party is based in unequivocal assertions that Catholicism is "an unChristian faith", that it preaches the Antichrist, and that its appropriation and distortion of Christ's teaching into a basis for the attainment of political supremacy has given birth to atheism. The Catholic Church, he claims, is merely a continuation of the Western Roman Empire : cynically exploiting the person and teaching of Christ it has installed itself on the earthly throne and taken up the sword to entrench and expand its power.
This is a betrayal of the true teaching of Christ, a teaching that transcends the lust for earthly power the Devil's Third Temptation , and speaks directly to the individual's and the people's highest emotions—those that spring from what Myshkin calls "spiritual thirst". Atheism and socialism are a reaction, born of profound disillusionment, to the Church's defilement of its own moral and spiritual authority. It is not from vanity alone, not from mere sordid vain emotions that Russian atheists and Russian Jesuits proceed, but from a spiritual pain, a spiritual thirst, a yearning for something more exalted, for a firm shore, a motherland in which they have ceased to believe Passionate and idealistic, like 'the Russian' alluded to in the anti-Catholic diatribe, Aglaya struggles with the ennui of middle class mediocrity and hates the moral vacuity of the aristocracy to whom her parents kowtow.
Her 'yearning for the exalted' has attracted her to militant Catholicism, and in the Prince's devotion to Nastasya Filippovna she sees the heroism of a Crusader -Knight abandoning everything to go in to battle for his Christian ideal. She is deeply angry when, instead of "defending himself triumphantly" against his enemies Ippolit and his nihilist friends , he tries to make peace with them and offers assistance.
When the Epanchins go abroad after the final catastrophe, Aglaya, under the influence of a Catholic priest, abandons her family and elopes with a Polish 'Count'. Innocence and guilt[ edit ] In his notes Dostoevsky distinguishes the Prince from other characters of the virtuous type in fiction such as Don Quixote and Pickwick by emphasizing innocence rather than comicality.
But his innocence is serious rather than comical, and he has a deeper insight into the psychology of human beings in general by assuming its presence in everyone else, even as they laugh at him, or try to deceive and exploit him.
The Prince guesses that he has come to borrow money before he has even mentioned it, and unassumingly engages him in a conversation about the psychological oddity of 'double thoughts': Two thoughts coincided, that very often happens I think it's a bad thing and, you know, Keller, I reproach myself most of all for it. What you told me just now could have been about me. I've even sometimes thought that all human beings are like that, because it's terribly difficult to fight those double thoughts At any rate, I am not your judge You used cunning to coax money out of me by means of tears, but you yourself swear that your confession had a different aim, a noble one; as for the money, you need it to go on a drinking spree, don't you?
And after such a confession that's weakness of course. But how can one give up drinking sprees in a single moment? It's impossible. So what is to be done? It is best to leave it to your own conscience, what do you think? Isolated and sexually exploited by Totsky from the age of sixteen, Nastasya Filippovna has inwardly embraced her social stigmatization as a corrupted 'fallen woman', but this conviction is intimately bound to its opposite—the victimized child's sense of a broken innocence that longs for vindication.
The combination produces a cynical and destructive outer persona, which disguises a fragile and deeply hurt inner being. When the Prince speaks to her, he only addresses this inner being, and in him she sees and hears the long dreamt-of affirmation of her innocence. But the self-destructive voice of her guilt, so intimately bound to the longing for innocence, does not disappear as a result, and constantly reasserts itself.
Myshkin divines that in her constant reiteration of her shame there is a "dreadful, unnatural pleasure, as if it were a revenge on someone.
The character of General Ivolgin, for example, constantly tells outrageous lies, but to those who understand him such as Myshkin, Lebedyev and Kolya he is the noblest and most honest of men. Myshkin himself has a strong tendency to feel ashamed of his own thoughts and actions. The fact that Rogozhin reaches the point of attacking him with a knife is something for which he feels himself to be equally guilty because his own half-conscious suspicions were the same as Rogozhin's half-conscious impulse.
Shortly after the period of interrogation and trial, he and his fellow prisoners were taken, without warning, to Semyonovsky Square where the sentence of death was read out over them.
The first three prisoners were tied to stakes facing the firing squad: Dostoevsky was among the next in line.
DOSTOJEVSKIJ IDIOT AS PDF
Just as the first shots were about to be fired, a message arrived from the Tsar commuting the sentences to hard labor in Siberia. The experience had a profound effect on Dostoevsky, and in Part 1 of The Idiot written twenty years after the event the character of Prince Myshkin repeatedly speaks in depth on the subject of capital punishment. On one occasion, conversing with the Epanchin women, he recounts an anecdote that exactly mirrors Dostoevsky's own experience.
A man of 27, who had committed a political offence, was taken to the scaffold with his comrades, where a death sentence by firing squad was read out to them. Twenty minutes later, with all the preparations for the execution having been completed, they were unexpectedly reprieved, but for those twenty minutes the man lived with the complete certainty that he was soon to face sudden death. The Prince recounts in detail what the man experienced during those twenty minutes. Engaging the servant in conversation, the Prince tells the harrowing story of an execution by guillotine that he recently witnessed in France.
He concludes the description with his own reflections on the horror of death by execution When you put your head right under the guillotine and hear it sliding above your head, it's that quarter of a second that's most terrible of all Who can say that human nature is able to endure such a thing without going mad?
Why such mockery—ugly, superfluous, futile? Perhaps the man exists to whom his sentence has been read out, has been allowed to suffer, and then been told: "off you go, you've been pardoned". A man like that could tell us perhaps. Such suffering and terror were what Christ spoke of. No, a human being should not be treated like that!
He carefully explains his reasons for the suggestion, enters in to the emotions and thoughts of the condemned man, and describes in meticulous detail what the painting should depict. In the midst of a heated exchange with his nihilist nephew he expresses deep compassion for the soul of the Countess du Barry , who died in terror on the guillotine after pleading for her life with the executioner. In the same year he began work on The Idiot he wrote to his doctor: "this epilepsy will end up by carrying me off My memory has grown completely dim.
I don't recognize people anymore I'm afraid of going mad or falling into idiocy". Although Myshkin himself is completely aware that he is not an ' idiot ' in any pejorative sense, he sometimes concedes the aptness of the word in relation to his mental state during particularly severe attacks. He occasionally makes reference to the pre-narrative period prior to his confinement in a Swiss sanatorium, when the symptoms were chronic and he really was "almost an idiot".
The sensation of life and of self-awareness increased tenfold at those moments The mind, the heart were flooded with an extraordinary light; all his unrest, all his doubts, all his anxieties were resolved into a kind of higher calm, full of a serene, harmonious joy and hope.
Mortality[ edit ] Death, the consciousness of its inevitability and the effect that this consciousness has on the living soul, is a recurring theme in the novel.
A number of characters are shaped, each according to the nature of their own self-consciousness, by their proximity to death.
The anecdote of the man reprieved from execution is an illustration, drawn from the author's own experience, of the extraordinary value of life as revealed in the moment of imminent death. The most terrible realization for the condemned man, according to Myshkin, is that of a wasted life, and he is consumed by the desperate desire for another chance.
The Idiot (Part 01 and 02)
After his reprieve, the man vows to live every moment of life conscious of its infinite value although he confesses to failing to fulfil the vow. Through his own emergence from a prolonged period on the brink of derangement, unconsciousness and death, the Prince himself has awoken to the joyous wonder of life, and all his words, moral choices and relations with others are guided by this fundamental insight.
Joseph Frank, drawing on the theology of Albert Schweitzer , places the Prince's insight in the context of "the eschatological tension that is the soul of the primitive Christian ethic, whose doctrine of Agape was conceived in the same perspective of the imminent end of time.
While the Prince's worldview reflects the birth of his faith in a higher world-harmony, Ippolit's concern with death develops into a metaphysical resentment of nature's omnipotence, her utter indifference to human suffering in general and to his own suffering in particular.
Thus he conceives the idea of suicide as a final assertion of his will in an act of defiance against nature. In the usual novel, the apparently free acts of the characters are an illusion as they only serve to bring about a future that has been contrived by the author. But in real life, even with a belief in determinism or preordination , the subject always assumes its freedom and acts as though the future is unwritten. Dostoevsky's extemporaneous approach helped facilitate the representation of the actual position of human subjectivity, as an open field of possibility where the will is free at all times, despite the apparent necessity of cause and effect.
The concept suggests an ethos where normal hierarchies, social roles, proper behaviors and assumed truths are subverted in favor of the "joyful relativity" of free participation in the festival.
In The Idiot, everything revolves around the two central carnival figures of the "idiot" and the "madwoman", and consequently "all of life is carnivalized, turned into a "world inside out": traditional plot situations radically change their meaning, there develops a dynamic, carnivalistic play of sharp contrasts, unexpected shifts and changes".
The carnival atmosphere that develops around them in each situation and dialogue "bright and joyous" in Myshkin's case, "dark and infernal" in Nastasya Filippovna's allows Dostoevsky to "expose a different side of life to himself and to the reader, to spy upon and depict in that life certain new, unknown depths and possibilities.
Analogous to musical polyphony , literary polyphony is the simultaneous presence of multiple independent voices, each with its own truth and validity, but always coincident with other voices, affecting them and being affected by them. Bakhtin defines it as "the event of interaction between autonomous and internally unfinalized consciousnesses". No voice has a privileged authority, and all have a form that inherently expresses engagement with other voices.
Thus events unfold dialogically, as a consequence of the interaction between discrete voices, not as a consequence of authorial design: What unfolds Dostoevsky's major heroes are, by the very nature of his creative design, not only objects of authorial discourse but also subjects of their own directly signifying discourse.
It is the voice of a highly perceptive and meticulous reporter of the facts, who has, despite this objectivity, a particular perspective on what he is reporting, occasionally even lapsing into pontification.
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A man who is free of deception, lies, concoction, and brutally honest. Dodtojevskij by passion but capable of sincere feeling and fidelity, he is a true lover, yet driven to madness and criminal behaviour. The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky Retrieved 7 February He tries to approach the subject of Nastasya Filippovna again, but she dostojeevskij him and hurriedly leaves.
They discuss mechanics and perspectives and symbols.
He goes after her but Nastasya Filippovna stops him desperately and then faints. Even though everyone more or less recognizes the good nature in him, everyone is unable to understand him and eventually see him as an enemy. About loving against reason. As a grown woman, Nastasya Filippovna has developed an incisive and merciless insight into their relationship.
Open Preview See a Problem? How convenient for you, Prince! They suffer acute changes of mood and opinion, veering from emotion to emotion too quickly rostojevskij the reader to even keep up. He is absolutely passive, incapable of one single motivated, proactive good deed. But how can one give up drinking sprees in a dostjevskij moment?
After spending several years in a sanatorium recovering from an illness that dotojevskij him to lose his memory and ability to reason, Prince Myshkin arrives in St Petersburg and is at once confronted with the stark realities of life in the Russian capital — from greed, murder and nihilism to passion, vanity and love.Blinded by passion but capable of sincere feeling and fidelity, he is a true lover, yet driven to madness and criminal behaviour.
No voice has a privileged authority, and all have a form that inherently expresses engagement with other voices.
In one early draft, the character who was to become Prince Myshkin is an evil man who commits a series of terrible crimes, including the rape of his adopted sister Nastasya Filippovna , and who only arrives at goodness by way of his conversion through Christ.
The most terrible realization for the condemned man, according to Myshkin, is that of a wasted life, and he is consumed by the desperate desire for another chance. He carefully explains his reasons for the suggestion, enters in to the emotions and thoughts of the condemned man, and describes in meticulous detail what the painting should depict.
Part 4[ edit ] It is clear to Lizaveta Prokofyevna and General Epanchin that their daughter is in love with the Prince, but Aglaya denies this and angrily dismisses talk of marriage. In the same year he began work on The Idiot he wrote to his doctor: "this epilepsy will end up by carrying me off The fact that Rogozhin reaches the point of attacking him with a knife is something for which he feels himself to be equally guilty because his own half-conscious suspicions were the same as Rogozhin's half-conscious impulse.
In the letter quoted above, written in as Dostoevsky was writing and sending out the first chapters of the novel, he acknowledges uneasily that he has seized this ambitious project prematurely, out of financial and professional desperation.