Scene Design and Stage Lighting, Tenth Edition. R. Craig Wolf, Dick Block. Publisher: Michael Rosenberg. Development Editor: Ed Dodd. Assistant Editor: Erin. Editorial Reviews. Review. 1. Introduction. Part I: SCENE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY. 2. Scene Design and the Theatre Space. 3. Scene Design as a Visual. An Introduction to Scene Design and Construction, Lighting, Sound,. Costume and working drawings [in image (*.jpg), PDF and VectorWorks (*.mcd) files] for.

Scene Design And Stage Lighting Pdf

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Scene Design and Stage Lighting | 10th Edition. R. Craig Wolf/Dick Block. View as Instructor. Product cover for Scene Design and Stage Lighting 10th Edition by . Scene Design and Stage Lighting. 8th ed. .. Regulations: regulations/chapter4/ Copyright. Air Pollution Control Equipment Selection Guide Second Edition PDF. The poetics of stage space: the theory and process of theatre scene design / Bruce.

As the side lighting comes from an increasingly lower angle, the shadows will lengthen to both sides of the actor and a larger corridor will be selected across the stage. As the light hits the face from a lower angle, it will light more into the eyes and teeth, although there will still be a tendency towards a central dark line where the beams meet down the centre of the face. As the angle lowers, sidelight has an increasingly modelling effect on the actor's face and body.

This is particularly important in dance. When the light becomes horizontal there will be a lighting corridor across the whole stage. By focusing just clear of the floor, it is possible to lose shadows into the wings, and the light will only be apparent when an actor stands in it.

Finding a compromise We normally seek to light an actor for maximum visibility and maximum modelling, with minimum shadow. Additionally in many productions, we need to select as tight an area as possible. Which combination of angles offers the optimum compromise? The basic compromise that has long been the standard approach is a pair of beams crossing on to the actor one for each side of the face from positions that are both forward and to the side of the actor. The suggested angle is often around 45 degrees in both directions - i.

However to restrict the shadows cast and to give a better 'join', the lights are often positioned closer to the vertical and to the centre.

A backlight added to the basic crossed pair brings depth to the scene and generally enhances the 'look' of the actor. The backlight can be used for strong atmospheric colour if required, while the crossed pair maintain a more natural tint on the actor's skin tones.

Note: The actor is now It by three beams with a degrees separation between them. The problem with 'crossed pair' lighting with or without a backlight is the extent of the spread of light on floor and scenery beyond the area where the actor's head is lit remember that head is usually about five feet above the floor.

Although a single beam can be flat it can also be quite tight. For modelling, sidelights can be added and, although they will spread the lit area, they can be at quite steep angles since they do not need to make a major contribution to visibility.

Note: Four beams now light the actor with a 90 degrees separation between them SPECIALS The major proportion of a stage lighting rig is focused to form a palette of areas and colours whose various combinations will provide the desired fluidity of selectivity and atmosphere. However there are certain lights whose function is so 'special' that they cannot make a significant contribution when mixing the basic palette. For the Actor Specials usually consist of spotlights set so tightly that the spaces they light cannot be considered as areas.

They are often for moments when an actor has to be picked' out perhaps only head and shoulders on an otherwise blacked-out stage. They need to be listed in a priority order for close scrutiny and reduction to essentials.

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For Special Effects There may be a request for equipment to produce clouds, flames, water, lightning, etc. When listing it is always prudent to remember that such effects can draw attention away from the actor rather than positively support a performance. And if the effect is essential, then the effect of light reflected from fire or water is often more telling than a pictorial representation of the actual fire or water. For the Scenery The proportion of the rig focused on the scenery will be very small.

With the exception of skies and back or front cloths, scenery normally gets sufficient general wash from the reflected light bouncing off the stage floor from the lights that have been set for the actors. Indeed, as discussed in the following pages, many of the basic problems of lighting design arise from difficulties in stopping actor light hitting directly on the scenery Successful lighting of scenery depends on augmenting the diffuse reflected general light by selective highlighting of chosen scenic elements, or parts of these elements.

This can vary from bold gashes to soft emphasis. Again, to be listed and reduced to essentials after a debate based on priorities and available resources.. Dividing the Stage Dividing by Area Once decisions have been made about the kind of contribution that we expect lighting to make to the production that we are planning - and these contributions have been put into some sort of order of priority - we need to break down the stage area into the segments over which we require independent selective control.

The required breakdown may be symmetrical, in which case the stage plan will be divided into something that resembles a series of areas of different sizes corresponding to the placing of the action.

Of course it could well be that there is no need for division into what it is useful to call production areas: all the stage may be in use all the time. In this case a simple division into centre and sides will allow balancing for maximum 'enhancement' of the look of the scene. Note: Adjoining areas overlap - both side to side and back to front.

And remember to remember that these are areas where an actor's head is to be lit - they ore unlikely to be the some as the light patterns on the floor Area planning for a play In this naturalistic play -possibly but not necessarily in a box set -the areas are determined to a considerable extent by the positions of furniture and doors.

And the lighting is expected to make some logic in terms of practical light fittings table lamps, wall brackets, etc. In this particular example, we have a play where it is desirable to focus attention at various times on the sofa, the armchair, the table with that essential tool of modern drama, a telephone and the doors.

These doors are tremendously important in any drama: some of the key appearances and speeches are made there. But for a long intimate scene on the sofa, it is useful to concentrate on that sofa and loose peripheral areas like the doors. Consider the seven areas shown here in terms of possible combinations: the area palette gives the director a wide range of selectivity of audience vision - whether a subconscious fluidity slow cues that are not obvious or an area selection obviously linked to the switching of the practical lamps Area planning for a musical Musicals tend to have many scenes and many selective and atmospheric light changes within these scenes.

Therefore, unless there are many - very many - lights available, the breakdown into areas has to be very general. In this example the breakdown is symmetrical because, as in so many musical productions, the settings consist of a symmetrical series of wings leading to a backcloth, possibly a skycloth.

With the addition of cloths and scenic pieces, the method of staging gives a flexible masked acting area with the possibility of sufficient open space for dancing and lots of entrances for a large chorus to get on and off quickly In most musicals the big moments are staged in the downstage areas: to help both musical balance and the 'putting across' of numbers to the audience. For the same reasons, much of the essential action takes place centre stage.

The most common selective lighting cue is to 'concentrate centre', usually downstage centre, by 'losing the edges'. This suggests a minimum of three areas across the stage - certainly at the front of the stage, and probably also midstage. However, it is often quite practical to consider the whole width of the rear of the stage as one area.

This provides a seven area combination that offers an area palette giving the director considerable selectivity with the possibility of progressive tightening from back to front and from sides to middle.


Dividing by Colour Does our chosen lighting style for the production include a fluid use of colour? After establishing a breakdown of the stage into areas, the next step is to consider whether any areas need to have control lable variations in colour. Or whether some of the adjoining areas could be grouped together for more general variations from a less selective colour wash. Note: When actually planning a production , normal procedure would be to define the selected areas, then indicate colour range by initials such as W,C,N for warm, cool and neutral or possibly R,O,Y ,G,B,A, for red, orange, yellow, green, blue.

Actual colour filter selection is best postponed until after the position and type of lights has been decided. Colour planning for a play In a naturalistic play, colour is often used to create a fluid atmosphere that can shift from warm cheerfulness to cool sadness.

If an area is lit with some lights in warm tones and some in cools, the dimmers of the control board can be used to achieve a whole series of options from an extreme of the warm colour alone, through the neutrality of both together, to the other extreme of cool colour alone.

Which if any of the areas need to have this kind of 'double cover' of colour tones? In this example, discussion with the director has established that such a colour palette seems necessary around the central areas and the desk, whereas the upstage corners and downstage right can manage on a warm tint only - although perhaps one that is a little closer to a compromise neutral than the warms in the mixable areas.

In such a naturalistic production the actual colour tints chosen are likely to be quite subtle. Colour planning for a musical The dialogue scenes of a musical require the subtle colour tones that are appropriate for a naturalistic play However, the musical numbers, particularly when solo singers can be given isolating visibility from tightly focused follow spots, usually call for strongly atmospheric colouring. And many dance sequences, where the body is relatively more expressive than the face,respond well to positive use of quite strong colour This example shows a much used technique where the colour is applied in rather broader washes than the areas selected for scene location.

The front half of the stage is divided into three areas, each lit from above in rather saturated colours: a hot and cold rather than a warm and cool. The rear half is treated as one area, also with a hot and cold from above. From the side comes further washes, probably in slightly less saturated hues. These may divide the stage into bands: in this case an upstage band and a downstage band, possibly splitting the stage into left and right but just as likely covering the full width.

With relatively neutral colour from the front, saturated colours from above and intermediate colours from the side, we have a colour palette that offers considerable scope. On many stages and in many auditoria there is not much choice: but, to make the best use of the positions available, it is necessary to start from an ideal and compromise that ideal to fit reality.

Crossing the beams opens out the area lit but can cast excessive shadows on side wall or masking. And so, with spotlights becoming increasingly versatile as to beam width, there is every reason to consider using the traditionally discredited method of lighting the actor with light coming straight in from the front.

Scene design and stage lighting

Of course if this is the only light, yes it will be flat. And if the available positions are so low that an actor shadow will be thrown on to the sky, then better to come diagonally - priorities again! There need not be precise side lighting for every area: it can often be quite general since it is frequently more important in the big wide areas than in smaller tighter areas more important, that is, in priority terms!

In the examples shown here, the traditional crossing method has been used for the play, while the actors in the musical are lit' flat frontal'.

But it could be vice versa. Whichever way, the next stage in the planning is to establish where the lights go and where they point. Example plan for a play For each area of our play we need two lights. One for each side of the actors' faces. When an area requires a full colour control of cool and warm, the number will double to four spots - a crossed pair in warm and a pair in cool.

A spot bar immediately behind the proscenium arch will give a suitable angle for lighting the upstage areas, but for the downstage areas a position in the auditorium is necessary Red and blue have been used to indicate warm and cool filters in the spots. Green indicates more neutral washes that have been added from back and sides. Not enough equipment? Well, do we really need all these areas? And so many of them with both warm and cool?

Back to priorities? Or rather than a pair, we could use a single straight in - but if so, we must make it really straight in because a single crossing beam does not do much for the other side of the face! Example plan for "In the Round" For staging in the round, light needs to come from all sides.

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And it should be evenly balanced to avoid favouring one segment of audience to an extent that is not really permissible in a staging form so democratic as theatre-in-the-round. To avoid hitting into audience eyes, light has to come from both within the acting area and from outside it. Angles can be closer to the vertical than in other forms of staging because the audience is closer to the actors and thus visibility is 'easier'.

Example plan for a musical In this musical the actors' visibility light is provided by spots in a neutral colour hitting straight in. The front areas are covered from the auditorium, the midstage areas from a bar just inside the proscenium, and the upstage areas from a midstage bar If the stage is very wide, two or more lamps may be required for each area as indicated.

Strong colour comes from near vertical backlights and medium colour from the wings on stands, booms or ladder-frames to be discussed under 'rigging. Note: For clarity these plans only include actor lights. The play would require light outside the window and on the door backings, while the musical is likely to need a colour mix for the backcloth and possibly specials for elements of scene. For 'FOH' front of house throws of any distance in the auditorium, profiles are essential, both to avoid undesirable lighting up of the auditorium from scatter light, and to allow sufficiently precise control of the beam to prevent spillage on to the proscenium.

However in a small hall there is a lot of merit in considering fresnels or PCs well barndoored at close range when a lot of spread is possible from a few lamps. For onstage use, Fresnels and PCs come into their own with fast-to-set soft edges - profiles are the most versatile instruments but they inevitably take longer to focus.

For backlight, fresnels and beamlights are favourite, while floods are to be thought of only for wide expanses of scenery. Use for actor light only in situations of extreme desperation.

For theatre-in-the-round, barndoored fresnels give the required smoothness and spread. Existing installations in most theatres and halls are likely to be based on fresnels and profiles: anyone downloading new equipment should look seriously at including a goodly proportion of the new generation PCs giving smooth soft-edge beams without stray scatter light and at the versatility of the variable beam profiles.

This plan shows instruments being allocated to our play in a very orthodox way: profiles for the front-of-house and fresnels for onstage. If a couple of PCs were available, they would be a useful alternative on the ends of the stage spot bar: this is a position where any scatter light shows up badly on the side walls of the set.

Whether or W units are required will depend mainly on length of throw, perhaps with the changeover around 6 to 8 metres. Fresnels have been allocated everywhere because they have a good smooth spread profile edges can be very difficult in small theatres in the round. Every spot must have a barndoor to contain spill from the audience eyes.

Each become a pair of spots since this is the only way that it is possible to light fully to the sides of the acting area.

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Too many-spots? Then perhaps just one cover in a neutral shade thereby halving the number on the plan and utilising a couple of pairs of straight downlighters to add colour toning in warm or cool. The lighting designer is responsible, in conjunction with the production's independently hired "Production Electrician" who will interface with the theatre's Master Electrician , for directing the theatre's electrics crew in the realization of his or her designs during the technical rehearsals.

After the Electricians have hung, circuited and patched the lighting units, the LD will direct the focusing pointing, shaping and sizing of the light beams and gelling coloring of each unit. At the tech table, the LD will generally use a Magic Sheet, which is a pictorial layout of how the lights relate to the stage, so he or she can have quick access to channel numbers that control particular lighting instruments.

The LD may also have a copy of the light plot and channel hookup , a remote lighting console, a computer monitor connected to the light board so they can see what the board op is doing , and a headset, though in smaller theatres this is less common.

There may be a period of time allowed for pre-lighting or "pre-cueing", a practice that is often done with people known as Light Walkers who stand in for performers so the LD can see what the light looks like on bodies.

At an arranged time, the performers arrive and the production is worked through in chronological order, with occasional stops to correct sound, lighting, entrances etc. The lighting designer will work constantly with the board operator to refine the lighting states as the technical rehearsal continues, but because the focus of a "tech" rehearsal is the production's technical aspects, the LD may require the performers to pause "hold" frequently.

Nevertheless, any errors of focusing or changes to the lighting plan are corrected only when the performers are not onstage. These changes take place during 'work' or 'note' calls. The LD only attends these notes calls if units are hung or rehung and require additional focusing.

If the only work to be done is maintenance i. During this time, if the cueing is finished, the LD will sit in the audience and take notes on what works and what needs changing. At this point, the Stage Manager will begin to take over the work of calling cues for the light board op to follow.

Generally, the LD will stay on headset, and may still have a monitor connected to the light board in case of problems, or will be in the control booth with the board operator when a monitor is not available. Often, changes will take place during notes call, but if serious problems occur the performance may be halted and the issue will be resolved then. Once the show is open to the public, the lighting designer will often stay and watch several performances of the show, making notes each night and making desired changes the next day during notes call.

If the show is still in previews, then the LD will make changes, but once the production officially opens, normally the lighting designer will not make further changes. Changes should not be made after the lighting design is finished, and never without the LD's approval. There may be times when changes are necessary after the production has officially opened. If significant changes need to be made, the LD will come in and make them, however if only smaller changes are needed, the LD may opt to send the ALD.

If a show runs for a particularly long time then the LD may come in periodically to check the focus of each lighting instrument and if they are retaining their color some gel , especially saturated gel, loses its richness and can fade or 'burn out' over time.

The LD may also sit in on a performance to make sure that the cues are still being called at the right place and time. The goal is often to finish by the opening of the show, but what is most important is that the LD and the directors believe that the design is finished to each's satisfaction.

If that happens to be by opening night, then after opening no changes are normally made to that particular production run at that venue.

The general maintenance of the lighting rig then becomes the responsibility of the Master Electrician. In small theatres[ edit ] It is uncommon for a small theatre to have a very large technical crew, as there is less work to do.

Many times, the lighting crew of a small theatre will consist of a single lighting designer and one to three people, who collectively are in charge of hanging, focusing and patching all lighting instruments. The lighting designer, in this situation, commonly works directly with this small team, fulfilling the role of both master electrician and lighting designer. Many times the designer will directly participate in the focusing of lights.

The same crew will generally also program cues and operate the light board during rehearsals and performances. In some cases, the light board and sound board are operated by the same person, depending on the complexity of the show. The lighting designer may also take on other roles in addition to lights when they are finished hanging lights and programming cues on the board.

Advances in visualization and presentation[ edit ] As previously mentioned, it is difficult to fully communicate the intent of a lighting design before all the lights are installed and all the cues are written.

With the advancement in computer processing and visualization software, lighting designers are now able to create computer generated images CGI that represent their ideas. The lighting designer enters the light plot into the visualization software and then enters the ground plan of the theater and set design, giving as much three-dimensional data as possible which helps in creating complete renderings.

This creates a 3D model in computer space that can be lit and manipulated. Using the software, the LD can use the lights from his plot to create actual lighting in the 3D model with the ability to define parameters such as color, focus, gobo, beam angle etc.

The designer can then take renderings or "snapshots" of various looks that can then be printed out and shown to the director and other members of the design team. Mockups and lighting scale models[ edit ] In addition to computer visualization, either full scale or small scale mock ups are a good method for depicting a lighting designer's ideas.Burian in the U.

This is why manufacturers make a series of zoom lens systems with limited zoom ranges rather than a single lens system that zooms all the way from pin spot to wide flood. The designer can then take renderings or "snapshots" of various looks that can then be printed out and shown to the director and other members of the design team. Example plan for "In the Round" For staging in the round, light needs to come from all sides. The play would require light outside the window and on the door backings, while the musical is likely to need a colour mix for the backcloth and possibly specials for elements of scene.

The lighting designer may also take on other roles in addition to lights when they are finished hanging lights and programming cues on the board. There's a problem loading this menu right now. For the same reasons, much of the essential action takes place centre stage.

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