Ingelvac MycoFLEX suspension for injection for pigs. 2. root-ingelvacmycoflex- fr-vbloqa/p1/1b-spc-pl/fepipvawoobig.tk Page 2 of Ingelvac MycoFLEX suspension for injection for pigs. 2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION. Inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, J Strain. Fold PDF 4 hal. 29Jun Ingelvac . MycoFLEX. Insert. /8” x /4”. /8” x /8”. 29Jun15 hal. BLACK.
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PDF Rev Level 2 lsh. 17Jan Ingelvac MycoFLEX. Insert. /8” x /4”. /8” x /8”. 17Jan14 lsh. BLACK. Ingelvac® MycoFLEX™. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin. Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd. Vetmedica Division. South Service Road. Burlington. The FLEXcombo® package contains one bottle of Ingelvac. CircoFLEX® and one bottle of. Ingelvac MycoFLEX®. The Ingelvac. MycoFLEX® is supplied in a.
Partner in mixed practice. Associate in mixed practice.
The breeding herd was of typical UK commercial genetics with the female being a Landrace cross Large White Yorkshire hybrid artificially inseminated with Pietrain cross Large White terminal sire semen. The farm had changed to two site and batch production in the preceding two years to deal with the impact of PMWS on production since these changes allowed better all-in all-out management and improved hygiene.
The breeding herd had also undergone a medicated partial depopulation programme in which had been successful in eliminating enzootic pneumonia and PRRS EU and, whilst growth rates and mortality had improved above the UK average for a PMWS affected unit, both mortality and daily liveweight gain was still felt to be considerably affected by PCV2 infection and the secondary problems associated with PCV2-related immunosuppression.
Prior to and during the trial the health status remained Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae negative, PRRS negative and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 positive.
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Newly weaned pigs up to seven weeks of age had a history of suffering from colibacillosis E. Active euthanasia accounted for half this mortality since chronically PMWS stunted animals were not economically saleable. Sudden death mortality and PDNS continued to affect older pigs approaching slaughter weight which was believed associated with ongoing PCV2 effects. The vaccine study was randomised, double blinded and placebo controlled. Two consecutive farrowing house batches of approximately suckling piglets at around three weeks of age were selected for inclusion based on their achieving a minimum body weight, age and their having a lack of clinical disease symptoms.
Piglets were randomised within their own litter based on body weight and allocated to either treatment or control group. Each piglet was individually ear tagged, blood sampled for serology to determine maternally derived PCV2 antibody levels, weighed and then injected with 36 37 either a single 1ml dose of vaccine or placebo by intramuscular injection in the neck.
Post treatment the animals were co-mingled and returned back to their own sow as a complete litter, and weaning took place some seven days later with immediate transport to the second farm at this time. Vaccinated and control animals were further co-mingled at weaning with both groups being present in the same pens, at normal stocking densities and fed usual commercial diets.
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All animals were clinically examined daily by the farmer and weekly by the veterinary surgeon from inclusion onwards, with any signs of general ill health being noted including lethargy, dyspnoea, cough, diarrhoea, lameness, skin discolouration including jaundice and weight loss. Records of any deaths of trial animals from inclusion onwards were maintained and post mortem examination of each animal took was performed at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency with histological examination as necessary.
Twenty percent of the trial animals were blood sampled each week up to week 12 after inclusion and thereafter every second week until week 20 of the trial. All animals were weighed at inclusion, seven weeks after treatment and again at weeks 12, 17 and 20 post-inclusion. Mortality prior to the onset of PCV-2 viraemia at four weeks post-inclusion 7 weeks of age was similar in the two groups at 1.
However a significant difference in mortality from all causes developed from four weeks post-inclusion to the end of the trial at 20 weeks post inclusion with mortality for the control groups totalling Of the surviving animals, bodyweight differences were apparent at the first weighing by seven weeks post-inclusion with a difference of 30g per day daily liveweight gain in favour of the vaccinated animals.
Vaccinated animals continued on average to gain weight by some 92g per day above the controls during the period of peak viraemia from study week 7 to 12, and showed a 62g per day growth improvement against a control from weeks of the study. By the end of the trial at week 20 this translated into 6.
This significant difference in mean weight was partly achieved through a notable reduction in the incidence of poorly grown wasted animals in the vaccinated group.
Until around four weeks after inclusion no differences between the study and control groups in terms of clinical disease incidence could be detected but by week 12 and continuing into weeks 17 and 20 a significant difference in animals showing ill thrift was shown with vaccinated animals being much less likely to show signs of PMWS.
No deaths attributed to PDNS have been reported.
PCVD - Global perspective and successful control, Durban, June 24 th, 38 Nigel Woolfenden Qualified with honours from Liverpool University in Worked in mixed large animal practice before specialising in pig medicine 10 years ago. Currently a partner with Bishopton Veterinary Group, a 12 vet team based in Yorkshire in the North of England, working full time with commercial pig herds.
I have specific interests in preventive medicine, training pig farmers and managing health to optimise growth. Director of Vetscore Ltd responsible for gathering abattoir surveillance data on behalf of the British Pig Health Scheme. Since its first occurrence in Korea in , it has been reported extensively in the field. Pigs affected with PCVAD show a variety of clinical signs, including growth retardation, dyspnoea, cough and diarrhoea Roh, Clinical symptoms in herds varies dramatically in severity of the disease and mortality.
Co-infections also vary significantly between farms.
Major co-infections reported Table 1: Farm size and disease history. Farm No. Serological testing was carried out to determine co-infections present. Pigs of VG received 1ml of vaccine via intramuscular route and non-vaccinated control pigs were given PBS Phosphate buffered saline ph 7. All pigs were individually weighed at 3, 10, 16, 22 weeks of age. Mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The clinical observation included fever, depression, dyspnea, cough, diarrhea, behavior and skin lesions.
Tissue samples for PCR were taken from lymph node, tonsil and lung and for IHC from tonsils, lungs, lymph nodes, livers, spleens, intestines and kidneys. The amount of viral load in tissues by IHC was scored 0, 1, 2, 3, respectively. On farm A blood samples were collected from 20 animals of each group at 3, 7, 10, 13, 16 weeks of age to measure white blood cell population.
Lymphoid cell depletion which is a typical sign of PCV2 infection was evaluated by routine histopathology and white blood cell differential counting WBC. On farm C the difference was not statistical significant.
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However, it needs to be taken into account that at the final weighing date already 8 of the heaviest pigs in the VG had been sold, compared to only two in the NVG. The mean of body weight in 22 weekold pigs was Clinical signs were drastically reduced in the vaccinated group and typical clinical signs of PCVAD were only observed in non-vaccinated groups from 7 to 8 weeks of age onwards, including severe diarrhea, increased breathing, fever and PDNS.
The average final body weight at 22 weeks of age and weight gain The number of positive samples in IHC test was similar to those in PCR. The average scoring index of positive samples in IHC on the three farms ranged from 0 1 in the vaccinated groups compared to in the non-vaccinated groups. The efficacy of the vaccine to reduce virus replication in target tissues and lymphoid depletion by PCV2-infection was confirmed, as well.
In addition to that, the WBC of the vaccinated pigs remained in the normal range, in contrast to the decreased values in the non-vaccinating pigs, suggesting that vaccination protects against the negative effects of PCV2 infection on the immune system. However, the remaining non-pcvad related clinical signs in the vaccinated groups underline the need to address all major pathogens on a farm.
References Kim, J. Changes in herd size, management practices, and emerging diseases have all re-shaped the industry.
Associated with these changes, animal health companies also need to change and adapt to insure they provide tools that meet the current industry needs as well as those of the future. Historically, animal health companies focused on vaccine registration with goals related to addressing a single clinical issue.
However, with the emergence PRDC Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex and PCVAD Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases we have moved away from dealing with clinical disease associated with a single etiological agent and move into complex disease syndromes involving multiple pathogens that interact in a complex fashion and wreak economic havoc for swine producers. However we quickly determined that control of PCV 2 alone would provide some value to the industry, but that long term we needed to develop FLEXIBLE tools, tools that worked globally, tools that took into account regional needs, and tools that addressed complex syndromes.
In starting this project, we worked with Boehringer Ingelheim scientists, veterinarians, and global disease experts. We felt in order to develop a world class vaccine, we needed to know and understand the following key issues: 1.
What would be the properties of a world class vaccine that would provide the most benefit to swine producers across the globe? How to best match customer demands for efficacy, safety and convenience all at the same time? Therefore, we concluded that ultimately, not only would we need to develop a tool to control PCV 2, but it must be compatible with other vaccines based on the regional needs and disease agents.
When we looked at herds across the globe we routinely found that almost all pigs and pig herds were PCV 2 positive for antibody and antigen and yet not all herds had clinical disease.
This suggested that pigs in their first week of life, although exposed to the PCV 2 virus were likely protected by maternal immunity. Disease was then observed after maternal decay. Based on this assessment, sow vaccination and inducing additional maternal immunity didn t make sense or seem to add value to a control program. Sows were already positive and maternal immunity already appeared to be present and yet pigs were experiencing PCVAD.
Vaccination of a sow seemed like it would have little benefit and may only push the disease into older and more valuable finisher animals.
This was the basis for our focus on a pig vaccine and not on a sow vaccine. In hindsight this was a great decision! Numerous studies and reports have been done looking at PCVAD and investigating the presence of swine pathogens. In general almost all reports, no matter on the method or geographical region, consistently list some combination So at this point, we knew we had a disease that was found in the grower and finisher. We knew we needed to vaccinate pigs and induce immunity in the pig.
We needed a vaccine that could be used with other respiratory vaccines. So the next step was to consider WHEN to vaccinate a pig for optimal protection. So we worked backwards. Vaccination at weeks of age would mean that a 2 dose vaccine would not be of value and potentially induce immunity too late.
We didn t have time to get 2 doses into pigs before disease started and would leave herds susceptible during early infections and maternal decay.
PCVD - Global perspective and successful control, Durban, June 24 th, 50 Traditional grow it, kill it, 2 dose vaccine technology is easy and commonly used in autogenous vaccines and older commercial products that are used in naive animals. However development of 1 dose vaccine technology and vaccines that work in the face of maternal antibodies requires: A high quality, purified, stable, neutralizing antigen, at the proper dosage PCA TM Purified Circovirus Antigen.
A world class adjuvant that induces rapid onset of immunity, has good duration of immunity, and induces the proper immune response ImpranFLEX TM. It has an excellent safety profile as it does not contain mineral oil. Serology The serum samples were tested using the commercially available M. Serum virus neutralization tests for PRRSV were also done using the challenge strain, as previously described 18 , Serum samples were considered to be positive for neutralizing antibodies NA if the titer was greater than 2.
Quantification of M. The DNA extracts were then used to quantify the M. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and PRRSV antigens were prepared as previously described 21 , The numbers of M.
Detection limits for IL were 1. Macroscopic lung lesion scores The total extent of macroscopic lung lesions was estimated and calculated as previously described The frequency distribution of the lung lesion scores for each lung lobe was calculated by treatment 16 , Morphometric analysis For the morphometric analysis of pulmonary histopathological changes, 3 lung sections were taken from ventromedial part of the right and left caudal lobe, and right middle lobe.
Lung sections were examined blindly and given an estimated severity score for the measures of pulmonary pathology i. Each individual measure was given a score ranging from 0 no lesion visible to 3 severe lesions. These scores were added to obtain an overall score for each section. Discrete data clinical respiratory scores, mortality rate, microscopic lung lesion scores, and M.
Results Clinical evaluation Pigs in the Zoetis-Vac and BI-Vac groups remained normal throughout the study, as measured by their respiratory scores and rectal temperatures, whereas moderate to severe respiratory signs were observed in the positive controls Figures 1A and B. The mean rectal temperature ranging from Lost anatomical points will be of three injection treatments.
Table 1. Results and Discussion Table 1. Vaccination schedule.
A the digital image photographer walked down the length of total of 8. The observer quietly set the nursery pen image Post-injection, At the conclusion of the s period, the observer recommended for use as a practical on-farm pig behavioral signaled to the photographer, by leaning back against the welfare assessment measure. Table 2. Lost anatomical points for snout and tail pre- and post-injection.Pigs were individually weighed on the day of vaccination day 0 , day 41 prior to being moved to a finishing barn, and again on day at the end of the study.
It could be questioned whether the benefit of vaccination is still valid in modern pig production systems with a high level of biosecurity, which are becoming more and more widely adopted worldwide. Lost anatomical points for snout and tail pre- and post-injection. Numerous studies and reports have been done looking at PCVAD and investigating the presence of swine pathogens. Sow and piglet vaccinations were used separately and simultaneously for some batches of pigs.
Apart from the transport related to the weaning process, the piglets in the present study were also transported to the experimental facilities, a trip that lasted anywhere from one-half to two hours.
Paul, MN. In contrast, many other countries devastated by PCVD between and , did not have these valuable tools in their arsenal and thus experienced prolonged periods of devastation. References Kim, J.